The Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Project
Understanding Diverse Viewpoints

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Introduction


The Issue at Hand

The Mexican wolf used once roamed throughout the Southwestern United States and Mexico. However, due to an eradication plan supported up by the United States Biological Survey in the early 1900's, the Mexican wolf was completely eliminated from the United States. Only about 25 remained within Mexico (Brown). With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the remaining Mexican wolves were captured and placed in captive breeding sites throughout the nation, with the intention of reintroducing them into the wild. In the meantime, the US Fish and Wildlife Service conducted extensive research in preparation for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that was required for this reintroduction program under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) . The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was made available to the public in November 1996. This document includes locations and desired numbers of wolves for each reintroduction site. It defined habitat distributions, management protocols and alternatives, and the ecological assessment, describing the feasibility ofdifferent reinroduction sites to sustain wolf populations. A major portion of the FEIS is devoted to the effects the wolf will have on its surroundings, including the communities of ranchers and Native Americans that utilize the land adjacent to the the proposed reintroduction areas, located in the Apache and Gila National Forests ("Reintroduction").

In 1998, with the support of Arizona and New Mexico Game and Fish, and the help of leading wolf biologists, USFWS released 11 Mexican wolves into the Apache National Forest in Arizona. Since that time, USFWS has faced many difficulties, including devising a management plan that was both politically and economically feasible. The largest difficulty has been in appeasing the different stakeholders involved and affected by the project. Some groups, like the ranchers and Native American tribal members found in the areas surrounding the introductions sites, have openly opposed the reintroduction. Other difficulties have come from environmentalists, who have heavily criticized the management protocols and have pushed for a more accessible public information forum. Meanwhile the State Governments of Arizona and New Mexico have also filed mixed reviews. As recently as March 29, 2002, New Mexico was threatening to pull out of the project alltogether, and to permanently close the gates of the Gila National Forest to the Mexican wolves ("New Mexico").

Under the Mexican wolf FEIS, the objective of the USFWS is to establish establish a wild population of 100 individuals by 2005 within a 5,000 square mile recovery area, while keeping 240 individuals in captivity to be used in maintaining genetic viability ("Reintroduction," 1-1). However, despite the fact that the FEIS focuses on the wolves, it often seems as if the federal government is more concerned with meeting the desires of all the people affected than to meeting the goals set up for the project. In the 21st century, with a human population of over 6 billion, pristine areas no longer exist, for all areas of the Earth are now somehow impacted either by human action or by human thought (Allenby). Therefore, to truly be an effective manager of any pristine area (or wildlife, in this case), it is important to understand the human components that are involved in the management protocols. The viability of the Mexican wolf population depends not only on the effectivenes of the USFWS to execute a federal law; it also depends on the open-mindedness of the people who live around the reintroduction area. These individuals may feel that the security and control within their land is now threatened by the return of an animal that they, or their ancestors, had helped to eradicate.

In order to correctly manage the wolf within this human sphere, we must understand the relationship between humans and the wolf. In order to understand how to most effectively manage the Mexican wolf, it is imperative to understand the thinking and motivation of the federal government, the environmentalists, the ranchers and the Apache tribes. The federal government has legal jurisdiction over the issue. The environmentalists are the most passionate about the issue. The ranchers and Apache, local citizens of the areas juxtaposing the reintroduction sites, are most directly affected by the wolves, for it is these two groups who will have most interaction with the wolves.

Brief History

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